Monday, 20 July 2015

Renewable Energy in Europe - by technology.

In descending order of % share in 2013.

Biomass dominates

% share of RE in gross final energy consumption RE Primary production (kTOE) % share of total RE, 2013
Country 2013 % 2020 TARGET 2003 2013 Biomass & waste Hydro Wind Solar Geo-thermal
Norway65.567.510,27712,4581088.71.300
Sweden52.14912,38916,77063.431.550.10
Latvia37.1401,7282,13787.811.70.500
Finland36.8387,8879,93488.211.10.700
Austria32.6346,1309,46656.238.12.92.40.4
Denmark27.2302,2523,24068.1029.52.10.2
Portugal25.7314,2415,62155.42118.423.2
Estonia25.6256671,12295.70.24.100
Romania23.9244,0025,56168.823.170.70.5
Lithuania23237941,28892.13.540.30.1
Slovenia21.5257141,07156.73702.63.6
Bulgaria19169521,8266519.26.57.51.8
Croatia18208001,49950.145.930.60.5
Italy16.7179,99923,50045.319.35.58.621.3
Spain15.4209,19617,37739.618.226.715.40.1
EU-281520104,094191,96164.216.610.55.53.1
Greece15181,5382,48743.121.914.320.10.5
France14.22315,52123,07364.526.362.11
Czech Republic12.4131,6633,64087.26.51.15.20
Germany12.41812,61433,68070.85.913.29.60.4
Poland11.3154,1508,51291.12.56.10.20.2
Hungary9.814.659062,07490.30.930.45.4
Slovakia9.8146511,46767.328.403.80.4
Cyprus8.1134810916.3018.364.11.4
Belgium7.9137082,92979.71.110.78.40.1
Ireland7.816235766416.5511.50
United Kingdom5.1152,6428,40461.74.829.14.30
Nether-lands4.5141,6254,29486.30.211.31.60.6
Malta3.81001027.40072.60
Luxem-bourg3.6114110775.59.66.68.20

Source: Eurostat (online data codes: nrg_107a, t2020_31, and ten00081)

Sunday, 19 July 2015

EU, share of energy from renewable sources, by sector, 2013, %

TransportElectricityHeating & coolingGross final energy consumption
Norway1.6105.531.865.5
Sweden16.761.867.252.1
Latvia3.148.849.737.1
Finland9.931.150.936.8
Austria7.568.133.532.6
Denmark5.743.134.827.2
Portugal0.749.234.525.7
Estonia0.213.043.125.6
Romania4.637.526.223.9
Lithuania4.613.137.723.0
Slovenia3.432.831.721.5
Bulgaria5.618.929.219.0
Croatia2.138.718.118.0
Italy5.031.318.016.7
Spain0.436.414.915.4
European Union (28 countries)5.425.416.515.0
Greece1.121.226.515.0
France7.216.918.314.2
Czech Republic5.712.815.312.4
Germany6.325.610.612.4
Poland6.010.713.911.3
Hungary5.36.613.59.8
Slovakia5.320.87.59.8
Cyprus1.16.621.78.1
Belgium4.312.38.17.9
Ireland5.020.95.77.8
United Kingdom4.413.92.65.1
Netherlands5.010.13.64.5
Malta3.31.623.73.8
Luxembourg3.95.35.63.6

PS: Doesn't necessarily include all sectors (e.g. Industry)

Source: Share of energy from renewable sources; Eurostat: nrg_ind_335a, Last update: 09-03-2015

Notes:
It's in descending order of RE consumption.
Eurostat included Norway, although its not an EU country! Why? Perhaps because its hydro is so high that it makes the European figures look better (with a lower biofuel %).
Population density matters. 4 countries at the top of the list all have low population densities. 2 countries at the bottom (Malta, Netherlands) have high population density. Because renewable energy is an intensive resource (taking up vast land areas), countries with high population density find it harder to do.
In most cases, biofuels contribute 60% to 95% of the renewable energy mix. Eurostat don't make it easy to find the biomass contributions.

Leaving aside other criticisms for a moment. I now attempted a 2nd chart to verify the data above using data from elsewhere on Eurostat. The chart below merges 2 sources. The 2nd column compares primary renewable consumption with all primary energy consumption. The percentages this time around are lower. Why? I can't explain because Eurostat don't explain the derivation of the figures above.

PS: I didn't harmonize the country list because I didn't want to be accused of 'curating' the data.

Gross inland consumption kTOE
RE %HydroWindSolar (PV + thermal)Other RE (biomass, geothermal)RE (all)All energy
Norway37.4%11,047.0162.90.01,375.112,585.033,660.8
Montenegro36.9%215.30.00.0166.9382.21,036.6
Latvia36.1%250.410.30.01,350.51,611.24,465.8
Sweden34.8%5,276.1846.314.210,946.017,082.649,134.0
Albania31.0%598.10.011.9201.5811.52,617.7
Austria29.6%3,609.4270.9227.95,883.99,992.133,762.4
Finland29.2%1,103.966.61.78,746.69,918.833,925.6
Denmark24.2%1.1956.469.03,351.44,377.918,101.2
Portugal23.5%1,180.61,033.0114.02,986.55,314.122,611.9
Lithuania18.1%44.851.83.91,111.91,212.46,687.4
Romania17.2%1,286.1388.736.33,839.85,550.932,346.0
Italy16.5%4,537.71,280.92,024.518,527.526,370.6160,007.1
Slovenia16.5%396.60.328.1706.11,131.16,871.3
Croatia16.2%688.044.59.1526.51,268.17,825.6
Spain14.7%3,162.54,634.82,677.76,933.717,408.7118,778.8
Serbia12.8%877.30.00.01,041.11,918.414,992.9
Estonia12.7%2.245.50.0803.5851.26,702.7
Euro area (19 countries)12.1%23,391.414,789.39,784.594,585.8142,551.01,178,002.7
Turkey11.8%5,109.2649.8795.07,493.414,047.4118,847.2
European Union (28 countries)11.8%31,860.520,207.410,626.3134,066.4196,760.61,666,318.4
Bulgaria10.8%350.8118.1136.11,208.61,813.616,763.7
Greece10.7%545.6355.9500.71,213.12,615.324,358.3
Macedonia10.7%136.20.00.8156.4293.42,746.0
Germany10.3%1,977.54,446.13,249.323,724.533,397.4324,271.5
France9.0%6,061.01,378.6487.415,377.323,304.3259,297.2
Poland8.7%209.7516.315.47,818.08,559.498,158.7
Czech Republic8.5%235.141.4189.13,103.03,568.642,191.3
Hungary8.3%18.361.78.11,800.51,888.622,741.1
Slovakia8.2%416.90.556.2935.71,409.317,261.4
Ireland6.2%49.7390.511.3399.2850.713,737.3
Belgium6.2%32.7312.6245.82,898.53,489.656,727.5
Cyprus6.1%0.019.969.844.6134.32,189.3
United Kingdom5.0%404.02,444.9364.56,886.410,099.8201,054.1
Netherlands4.2%9.8483.870.42,806.63,370.681,170.9
Luxembourg3.6%10.27.18.8130.5156.64,337.4
Malta1.5%0.00.06.95.812.7839.0

Source:
Simplified energy balances - annual data [nrg_100a]
Supply, transformation and consumption of renewable energies - annual data [nrg_107a]